Factor State In Innovative Ecosystems: A Comparison Between Brazil and Germany

Ansgar Buschmann, Bernardo Meyer, Gerhardt Schewe


Innovation is an extensively used term in modern management jargon, especially due to its capacity of giving competitive advantage to whoever is able to develop it. Consequently, due to this “special power”, innovation has been pursued by organizations worldwide, especially in the private sector. The strengths of innovation were also perceived by governments, as they began developing public policies oriented to foster innovation. In order to understand this phenomenon, this research studies the experience of two cities located in two different countries, Brazil and Germany, that are recognized nationally as having well succeeded public policies aimed on developing innovation. The paper is based on an in depth qualitative research and its main theoretical foundations are based on the contributions of Isenberg (2010) on innovation, Dye (1972) and Sebatier (1986) on public policy and Cantwell and Mudambi (2000), Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (2000) and Etzkowitz (2008) on innovative public policies. Despite all political, social and economic differences between Brazil and Germany, the strategies implemented in both cities followed a similar pattern and were successful in fostering an ecosystem that enabled the development of companies that generated innovations in products, services and processes. The outcomes, in both regions, were related to economic development, and creation of strong cluster of highly innovative and competitive organizations.


Innovative Ecosystems; Public Policy; Innovation; Innovative and Competitive Organizations

Full Text:



Adner, R. & Kapoor, R. (2015). Innovation Ecosystems and the Pace of Substitution: re-examining technology s-curves. Strategic Management Journal, 37 (4): 625-648.

Allahar, H. & Brathwaite, C. (2016). Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: the experience of South America and the Caribbean. International Journal of Innovation (IJI Journal), 4 (2): 71-85.

Bouncken, R. D. & Fredrich, V. (2016). Business Model Innovation in Alliances: successful configurations. Journal of Business Research, 69 (5): 1753-1758.

Braga, O. S. G. & Forte, S. H. A. C. (2016). Influência Institucional em Arranjos Produtivos Locais para Criação de Inovação. Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management, 15 (1): 116-129.

Cantwell, J. & Mudambi, R. (2000). The location of MNE R&D activity: the role of investment incentives. Management International Review, 40 (1): 127-149.

Cowen, T. (2013). Average is over: powering America beyond the age of Great Stagnation. London: Penguin Books.

Dosi, G. The nature of the innovative process: technical change and economic theory. In: Dosi, G.; Freeman, C.; Nelson, R.; Silverberg, G.; Soete, L. (Eds.) (1988). Technical Change and Economic Theory. pp. 221-237. London: Pinter.

Doz, Y. Government policies and global industries. In: Porter, M. E. (Org.) (1986). Competition in Global Industries. pp. 225-266. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Dye, T. R. (1972). Understanding Public Policy. Englewood-Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: from national systems and ‘Mode 2’ to a triple helix of universityindustry-government relations. Research Policy, 29 (2): 109-23.

Etzkowitz, H. (2008). The Triple Helix: University-Industry-Government in action. London: Routledge.

Gibbs, J., Kraemer, K., & Dedrick, J. (2003). Environment and Policy Factors Shaping Global E-Commerce Diffusion: A Cross-Country Comparison. The Information Society: An International Journal, 19 (1): 5-18.

Helble, Y. & Chong, L. C. (2004). The importance of internal and external R&D network linkages for R&D organizations: evidence from Singapore. R&D Management, 34 (5): 605-612.

Howlett, M. (2000). Managing the ‘hollow state’: procedural policy instruments and modern governance. Canadian Public Administration, 43 (4): 4123-4131.

Isenberg, D. J. (2010). How to start an entrepreneurial revolution. Harvard Business Review, June.

Jaccoud, M. & Meyer, R. A observação direta e a pesquisa qualitativa. IN: Poupart, J.; Deslauries, J.; Groulx, L.; Laperriere, A.; Meyer, R. & Pires, A. (2008). A pesquisa qualitativa: enfoques epistemológico e metodológicos. pp. 254-294. Petrópolis: Vozes.

Lindblom, C. E. (1959). The science of “muddling through”. Public Administration Review, 19 (1): 79-88.

Mason, C., & Brown, R. (2014). Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth Oriented Entrepreneurship. Background paper prepared for the workshop organized by the OECD LEED Programme.

Ohmae, K. (2005). The New Global Stage: challenges and opportunities in our borderless world. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

O’Toole Jr., L. J. (2003). Interorganizational relations of implementation. In: Peters, B. G., Pierre, J. (Orgs.). Handbook of Public Administration. pp. 234-244. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Prefeitura de Florianópolis (2016). Polo Tecnológico. Available in: http://www.pmf.sc.gov.br/entidades/smctdes/index.php?cms=polo+tecnologico. Access in March 9th, 2016.

Schumpeter, J. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest and the business cycle. Cambridge: Harvard Business Press.

Sebatier, P. A. (1986). Top down and bottom up approaches to implementation research: a critical analysis and suggested synthesis. Journal of Public Policy, 6 (1): 21-48.

Spinosa, L. M., Schlemm, M. M. & Reis, R. S. Brazilian innovation ecosystems in perspective: some challenges for stakeholders. Revista Brasileira de Estratégia, 8 (3): 386-400.

Stangler, D., & Bell-Masterson, J. (2015). Measuring an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem. Kauffman Foundation Research Series on City, Metro, and Regional Entrepreneurship.

Stenholm, P., Acs, Z., & Wuebker, R. (2013). Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Business Venturing, 28 (1): 176–193.

Toppeta, D. (2010). The Smart City Vision: how innovation and ICT can build smart, “Livable”, Sustainable Cities. The Innovation Knowledge Foundation. Available in: http://www.thinkinnovation.org/file/research/23/en/Toppeta_Report_005_2010.pdf. Access in March 9th, 2016.

Yin, R. K. (1984). Case study research: design and methods. London, Sage Publications.

Zygiaris, S. (2011). Smart city reference model: Assisting planners to conceptualize the building of smart city innovation ecosystems. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 4 (2): 217-231.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Int. J. Innov. e-ISSN: 2318-9975

Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 - Liberdade, São Paulo - SP (Brasil), Cep: 01504-000

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença 
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional