The Influence of Technology Readiness Index in Entrepreneurial Orientation: A Study with Brazilian Entrepreneurs in the United States of America

Daniel Penz, Bianca Costa Amorim, Sabrina Nascimento, Carlos Ricardo Rossetto


This research has aimed to analyze the influence of the Technology Readiness Index (TRI) in the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) for Brazilian small-business men who have settled in the United States of America. The exploratory research or quantitative survey was based on a structural equation modeling, using SmartPLS (SEM-PLS). The sample was comprised of 107 Brazilian small-entrepreneurs who live in the United States. The results indicate the predominance of inducing technology factors in dimensions of optimism and innovativeness to the TRI, which suggests making use of new technologies. By excluding the dimensions of discomfort and insecurity on the TRI, it was revealed entrepreneurs feel more comfortable with technology and do not feel uncomfortable or insecure about using them. Regarding the entrepreneurial orientation, it was possible to perceive dimensions of risk propensity, proactive approach and innovativeness among those who participated in the survey. Concerning the relationship of both constructs, the TRI and the OE, the structural model has shown good fitting of 36%, which means the TRI explains the EO in 13%. In outline, it is to say the TRI fairly influences the entrepreneurial orientation of those Brazilian small-business men analyzed.


Technology Readiness Index; Entrepreneurial Orientation; Brazilian small-business men

Full Text:



Avlonitis, G.J & Salavou, H.E. (2007). Entrepreneurial orientation of SMEs, product innovativeness, and performance. Journal of Business Research. 60, 566–575.

Babbie, E. (1992). The practice of social research. California: Wardsworth Publishing Company.

Basile, A. (2012). Entrepreneurial Orientation in SMES: Risk-Taking to Entering International Markets. Far East Journal of Psychology and Business. 7 (n 2).

Brei, V.A. & Liberali Neto, G. (2006). O uso da técnica de modelagem de equações estruturais na área de marketing: um estudo comparativo entre publicações no Brasil e no Exterior. RAC, 10 (4), 131-151.

Bojica, A.M. & Fuentes, M.D.M.F. (2012) Knowledge acquisition and corporate entrepreneurship: Insights from Spanish SMEs in the ICT sector. Journal of World Business. 47, 397–408.

Bollen, K. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cairncross, F. (2001). The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution is Changing Our Lives. Harvard Business Press.

COHEN, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. New York: Psychology Press.

Covin, J.G & Slevin, D.P. (1989) Strategic Management of Small Firms in Hostile and Benign Environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10, 75-87.

Covin, J.G. & Wales, W.J. (2011). The Measurement of Entrepreneurial Orientation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 677 -702.

Fornell, C. & Bookstein, F.L. A Comparative Analysis of Two Structural Equation Models: LISREL and PLS Applied to Market Data, in A Second Generation of Multivariate Analysis, Vol. 1, C. Fornell, ed. New York: Praeger, 289–324, 1982.

Gem - Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012.

Gibson S., Harris, M.L & Sadighian, F. (2011). Investgating The Entrepreneurial Attitudes of Armenian Immigrants. The Coastal Business Journal. 10 (1).

Hair Jr., J.F. et al. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Los Angeles: SAGE.

Lumpkin, G.T & Dess, G.G. (1996). Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance. The Academy of Management Review. 21 (1), 135-172.

Margolis, M.L. (1995). Transnationalism and Popular Culture: The Case of Brazilian Immigrants in the United States. The Journal of Popular Culture. 29 (1), 29-41, Summer.

Merz, G.R. & Sauber, M.H. (1995). Profiles of managerial activities in small firms. Strategic Management Journal. 16, 551–564.

Miller, D. (2011). Miller (1983) Revisited: A Reflection on EO Research and Some Suggestions for the Future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 873-894.

Miller, D. (1983). The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms. Management Science, 29 (7), 770-791.

Minniti, M., Allen, I.E. & Langowitz, N. (2006). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2005 report on women and entrepreneurship. Babson Park, MA: Babson College.

Ninis, A.B. (2013). Os Pequenos Empreendedores no Mercado de Trabalho. In: BRASIL. Presidência da República. Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos. Vozes da Nova Classe Média, caderno 3, p. 27-51.

Parasuraman, A. (2000). Technology readiness index (TRI): a multiple-item scale to measure readiness to embrace new technologies. Journal of Service Research. 2 (4).

Parasuraman, A & Colby, C.L. (2014). An Updated and Streamlined Technology Readiness Index: TRI 2.0. Journal of Service Research. 1-16.

_____. (2001). Techno-ready marketing: how and why your customers adopt technology. New York: The Free Press.

Pearce, J.A., Fritz, D.A & Davis, P.S. (2010). Entrepreneurial Orientation and the Performance of Religious Congregations as Predicted by Rational Choice Theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34 (1) 219–248, January.

Schumpeter, J.A. (1911). Teorie der wirtschaflichen Entwicklung. Leipzig, Verlag Von Duncker & Humblot. Traduzido por Maria Sílvia Possas. Teoria do Desenvolvimento Econômico. Uma Investigação sobre Lucros, Capital, Crédito, Juro e o Ciclo Econômico. Nova Cultural. São Paulo. 1997.

Silva, D. (2015). Modelagem de equações estruturais usando o SmartPLS. 17 de abr. 2015. 290 p. Notas de Aula.

Slevin, D.P & Terjesen, S.A. (2011). Entrepreneurial Orientation: Reviewing Three Papers and Implications for Further Theoretical and Methodological Development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 973-987.

Soininen, J., Martikainen, M., Puumalainen, K. & Kyläheiko, K. (2012). Entrepreneurial orientation: Growth and profitability of Finnish small- and medium-sized enterprises. Int. J. Production Economics. 140, 614–621.

Sundqvist, S., Kuivalainen, O & Cadogan, J.W. (2011). Contingency Factors in International Entrepreneurial Orientation – Performance Relations of Firms with Different Levels of Internationalization. Firm-Level Internationalization, Regionalism and Globalization: Strategy, Performance and Institutional Change. Edited by Berrill, J., Hutson, E & Sinkovics, R. Palgrave Macmillan.

Tamayo-Torres, I., Ruiz-Moreno, A & Verdú, A.J. (2010). The moderating effect of innovative capacity on the relationship between real options and strategic flexibility. Industrial Marketing Management. 39, 1120-1127.

Voss, Z.G., Voss, G.B & Moorman, C. (2005). An empirical examination of the complex relationships between entrepreneurial orientation and stakeholder support. European Journal of Marketing. 39 (9/10).

Wiklund, J & Shepherd, D.A. (2008). Portfolio Entrepreneurship: Habitual and Novice Founders, New Entry, and Mode of Organizing. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice, 701-725, July.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Int. J. Innov. e-ISSN: 2318-9975

Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 - Liberdade, São Paulo - SP (Brasil), Cep: 01504-000

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença 
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional