Investigating the Key Factors Influencing the Use of Online Social Networks in Public Sector Context in the UAE

Ali Amin, Hamad Almari, Osama Isaac, Fathey Mohammed


During the past decade, usage of online social network sites has grown dramatically rivaling search engines as the most visited Internet site. The intensive literature review reveals the existing of several studies that have been done on the field of Online Social Network (OSN), but there is a lack of research that deals with usage in the context of public sector organizations. This study aims to employ structural equation modeling via AMOS to analyze 401 valid questionnaires for assessing a model which is proposed based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to identify the factors affecting the use of OSN among employees of a public sector organization in the UAE. The proposed model examines the influence of four factors; performance, effort, social influence, and facilitating conditions on the actual use of OSN. Results indicated that all these factors (as independent variables) significantly predicted the actual usage of OSN with various percentages. Our work improved the insights on the online social networking usage in the context of public sector organizations. 


Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology; Online Social Networks; public sector; UAE, Structural Equation Modeling.

Full Text:



A Hayduk, L., & Littvay, L. (2012). Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12(1), 159.

Addo, H. (2014). Using the UTAUT model to analyze students’ ICT adoption. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 10(3), 75–86.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In Kuhl (Ed.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11–39). Berlin, Heidelber, New York: Springer-Verlag.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. A. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behaviour (1st ed.). New York: Pearson.

Al-Maamari, Q. A., Muhammed Kassim, R.-N., Raju, V., Al-Tahitah, A., Ameen, A., & Abdulrab, M. (2018). Factors Affecting Individual Readiness for Change: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Management and Human Science, 2(1), 13–18.

Al-Obthani, F., & Ameen, A. (2018). Towards Customized Smart Government Quality Model. International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications, 9(2), 41–50.

Al-Qeisi, K., Dennis, C., Alamanos, E., & Jayawardhena, C. (2014). Website design quality and usage behavior: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2282–2290.

Aldholay, A. H., Isaac, O., Abdullah, Z., Alrajawy, I., & Nusari, M. (2018). THE ROLE OF COMPATIBILITY AS A MODERATING VARIABLE IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEM SUCCESS MODEL: THE CONTEXT OF ONLINE LEARNING USAGE. International Journal of Management and Human Science (IJMHS), 2(1), 9–15.

Aldholay, A. H., Isaac, O., Abdullah, Z., & Ramayah, T. (2018). The Role of Transformational Leadership as a Mediating Variable in DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model: The Context of Online Learning usage in Yemen. Telematics and Informatics.

Alrajawy, I., Daud, N. M., Isaac, O., & Mutahar, A. M. (2016). Mobile Learning in Yemen Public Universities: Factors Influence Student’s Intention to Use. In The 7th International Conference Postgraduate Education (ICPE7) (pp. 1050–1064). Shah Alam, Malaysia.

Amato, F., Castiglione, A., De Santo, A., Moscato, V., Picariello, A., Persia, F., & Sperlí, G. (2018). Recognizing human behaviours in online social networks. Computers and Security, 74, 355–370.

Ameen, A., & Ahmad, K. (2011). The Role of Finance Information Systems in anti financial corruptions: A theoretical review. 2011 International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems, 1–6.

Ameen, A., & Ahmad, K. (2013a). A Conceptual Framework of Financial Information Systems to Reduce Corruption. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 54(1), 59–72.

Ameen, A., & Ahmad, K. (2013b). Proposing Strategy for Utilizing Financial Information Systems in Reducing Corruption. In 3rd International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems – 2013 (ICRIIS’13) (Vol. 2013, pp. 75–80).

Ameen, A., & Ahmad, K. (2014). A Systematic Strategy for Harnessing Financial Information Systems in Fighting Corruption Electronically. In Knowledge Management International Conference (KMICe) 2014, 12 – 15 August 2014, Malaysia (pp. 12–15). Retrieved from

Ameen, A., Almulla, A., Ali, M., Al-shibami, A. H., & Ghosh, A. (2018). The Impact of Knowledge Sharing on Managing Organizational Change within Abu Dhabi National Oil Organizations. International Journal of Management and Human Science (IJMHS), 2(3), 27–36.

Arab Social Media Report. (2015). Benefits of Social Media usage, Arab Social Media Influencers Summit.

Awang, Z. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling Using AMOS. Shah Alam.Malaysia: University Teknologi MARA Publication Center.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Baruch, Y., & Holtom, B. C. (2008). Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. Human Relations, 61(8), 1139–1160.

Bentler, P. M., & G.Bonnet, D. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588–606.

Bollen, K. A. (1990). Overall fit in covariance structure models: Two types of sample size effects. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 256–259.

Boonsawat, S., & T.Naennab. (2014). The UTAUT Model For The Study Of Acceptance And Use Of Capability Maturity Model Integration.

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-Translation for Cross-Cultural Research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (Vol. 1).

Brown, S. a., Dennis, A. R., & Venkatesh, V. (2010). Predicting Collaboration Technology Use: Integrating Technology Adoption and Collaboration Research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 27(2), 9–54.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling With AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Chang, C.-C. (2013). Library mobile applications in university libraries. Library Hi Tech, 31(3), 478–492.

Chang, M., & Cheung, W. (2001). Determinants of the intention to use Internet/www at work: a confirmatory study. Information and Management, 39 (1) 1-14.

Chen, C. (2008). Study on Application of E-commerce and Organizational Performance in Taiwanese Professional Sports Event Promotion Organizations. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 4(1), 66–73.

Cheng, D., Liu, G., Qian, C., & Song, Y.-F. (2013). Customer Acceptance of Internet Banking : Integrating Trust and Quality with UTAUT Model. IEEE, 1(1), 383–388.

Cheng, Y. M. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of e-learning acceptance. Information Systems Journal, 21, 269–299.

Chin, W. W. (1998a). Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. MIS Quarterly, 22(1), 7–16.

Chin, W. W. (1998b). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. (pp. 295–358). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cocosila, M., & Igonor, A. (2015). How important is the “ social ” in social networking ? A perceived value empirical investigation. Information Technology & People, 28(2), 366–382.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd Editio). LawreAssociatesnce Erlbaum.

Datta, P. (2011). A preliminary study of ecommerce adoption in developing countries. Information Systems Journal, 21(1), 3–32.

Davis, F. D. (1989). perceived Usefulness, Perceived ease of use, and User Acceptence of inforamtion technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.

DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (2016). Information Systems Success Measurement. Series in Information Technology Management. now Publishers Inc. PO.

Escobar-Rodríguez, T., & Carvajal-Trujillo, E. (2014). Online purchasing tickets for low cost carriers: An application of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model. Tourism Management, 43, 70–88.

Escobar-Rodríguez, T., Carvajal-Trujillo, E., & Monge-Lozano, P. (2014). Factors that influence the perceived advantages and relevance of Facebook as a learning tool: An extension of the UTAUT. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(2), 136–151.

Faaeq, M. K., Alqasa, K., & Al-Matari, E. M. (2014). Technology adoption and innovation of E-Government in Republic of Iraq. Asian Social Science, 11(3), 135–145.

Fang, S.-F. (2014). Using UTAUT Model to Explore the User Behavior of E-Learning System in a Public Sector. Department of Communications Management.

Faraliza, N., Noor, M., Azmi, A. A. C., & Ramalingam, L. (2014). The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) and the Goods and Service Tax ( GST ) Application System. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 8(17), 1911–1916.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M.-C. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(1), 1–79.

Global Innovation Index. (2016). Government institutions effectiveness: Yemen versus Arab countries: Rank among 143 countries, Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Gonzalez, G. C., Sharma, P. N., & Galletta, D. (2012). Factors Influencing the Planned Adoption of Continuous Monitoring Technology. Journal of Information Systems, 26(2), 53–69.

Greengard, S. (2015). The Internet of Things. (T. M. Press, Ed.).

Gu, J.-C., Lee, S.-C., & Suh, Y.-H. (2009). Determinants of behavioral intention to mobile banking. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(9), 11605–11616.

Guo, Y. (2015). Moderating Effects of Gender in the Acceptance of Mobile SNS Based on UTAUT Model. International Journal of Smart Home, 9(1), 203–216.

Haddad, A., Ameen, A., & Mukred, M. (2018). The Impact of Intention of Use on the Success of Big Data Adoption Via Organization Readiness Factor. International Journal of Management and Human Science, 2(1), 43–51.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey.

Hair, J. F. J., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), 46 Long Range Planning 328 (2014). London: Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

He, P., He, Y., & Xu, F. (2018). Evolutionary analysis of sustainable tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 69(July 2017), 76–89.

Hendarman, A. F., & Tjakraatmadja, J. H. (2012). Relationship among Soft Skills, Hard Skills, and Innovativeness of Knowledge Workers in the Knowledge Economy Era. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 52, 35–44.

Hsu, C.-L., Chen, M.-C., Lin, Y.-H., Chang, K.-C., & Hsieh, A.-Y. (2014). Adopting the Extension of UTAUT Model to Investigate the Determinants of e-book Adoption.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.

Ifinedo, P. (2012). Technology acceptance by health professionals in Canada: An analysis with a modified UTAUT model. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2937–2946.

Im, I., Hong, S., & Kang, M. S. (2011). An international comparison of technology adoption: adoption Testing the UTAUT model. Information & Management, 48(1), 1–8.

Isaac, O., Abdullah, Z., Ramayah, T., & Mutahar, A. M. (2017a). Internet usage , user satisfaction , task-technology fit , and performance impact among public sector employees in Yemen. The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, 34(3), 210–241.

Isaac, O., Abdullah, Z., Ramayah, T., & Mutahar, A. M. (2017b). Internet Usage and Net Benefit among Employees Within Government Institutions in Yemen: An Extension of Delone and Mclean Information Systems Success Model (DMISM) with Task-Technology Fit. International Journal of Soft Computing, 12(3), 178–198.

Isaac, O., Abdullah, Z., Ramayah, T., Mutahar, A. M., & Alrajawy, I. (2016). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Compatibility, and Net Benefits: an empirical study of internet usage among employees in Yemen. In The 7th International Conference Postgraduate Education (ICPE7) (pp. 899–919). Shah Alam, Malaysia.

J.Vallerand, R. (1997). Toward A Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29(1), 271–360.

James, L. R., Muliak, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (1982). Causal analysis: Models, assumptions and data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1998). LISREL 8: Structural Equation Modeling with the SIMPLIS Command Language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.

Kannana, V. R., & Tan, K. C. (2005). Just in time, total quality management, and supply chain management: understanding their linkages and impact on business performance. Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, 33(2), 153–162.

Kassim, N. M., Ramayah, T., & Kurnia, S. (2012). Antecedents and outcomes of human resource information system (HRIS) use. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 61(6), 603–623.

Kim, H.-W., Chan, H. C., & Gupta, S. (2007). Value-based Adoption of Mobile Internet: An empirical investigation. Decision Support Systems, 43(1), 111–126.

Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Krejcie, R. V, & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38, 607–610.

Lee, B. C., Yoon, J. O., & Lee, I. (2009). Learners’ acceptance of e-learning in South Korea: Theories and results. Computers and Education, 53(4), 1320–1329.

Lian, J.-W. (2015). Critical factors for cloud based e-invoice service adoption in Taiwan: An empirical study. International Journal of Information Management, 35(1), 98–109.

Lin, C.-P., & Anol, B. (2008). Learning online social support: an investigation of network information technology based on UTAUT. Cyberpsychology & Behavior : The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 11(3), 268–72.

Lin, H. F. (2007). Predicting consumer intentions to shop online: An empirical test of competing theories. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 6, 433–442.

Martins, C., Oliveira, T., & Popovič, A. (2014). Understanding the Internet banking adoption: A unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and perceived risk application. International Journal of Information Management, 34(1), 1–13.

Moghawemi, S., Mohd Salleh, N. A., Zhao, W., & Mattila, M. (2012). The entrepreneur’s perception on information technology innovation adoption: An empirical analysis of the role of precipitating events on usage behavior. Innovation: Management, Policy and Practice, 14(2), 231–246.

Moore, G. A. (2006). Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-Tech Products to Mainstream Customers.

Mukred, M., M. Yusof, Z., Mokhtar, U. A., & Abdul Manap, N. (2016). Electronic Records Management System Adoption Readiness Framework for Higher Professional Education Institutions in Yemen. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 6(6), 804.

Mutahar, A. M., Daud, N. M., Ramayah, T., Putit, L., Isaac, O., & Alrajawy, I. (2016). The Role of Trialability, Awareness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Perceived Usefulness in Determining the Perceived Value of Using Mobile Banking in Yemen. In The 7th International Conference Postgraduate Education (ICPE7) (pp. 884–898). Shah Alam, Malaysia.

Mutahar, A. M., Daud, N. M., Thurasamy, R., Isaac, O., & Abdulsalam, R. (2018). The Mediating of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use : The Case of Mobile Banking in Yemen. International Journal of Technology Diffusion, 9(2), 21–40.

Nassuora, A. B. (2012). Students Acceptance of Mobile Learning for Higher Education in Saudi Arabia. American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal, 4(2), 1–9.

Nistor, N., Lerche, T., Weinberger, A., Ceobanu, C., & Heymann, O. (2014). Towards the integration of culture into the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(1), 36–55.

Nysveen, H., & Pedersen, P. E. (2014). Consumer adoption of RFID-enabled services . Applying an extended UTAUT model. Information Systems Frontiers.

Pahnila, S., Siponen, M., & Zheng, X. (2011). Integrating Habit into UTAUT: The Chinese eBay Case. Pacific Asia Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 3(2), 1–30.

Petter, S., & McLean, E. R. (2009). A meta-analytic assessment of the DeLone and McLean IS success model: An examination of IS success at the individual level. Information & Management, 46(3), 159–166.

Raman, A., & Don, Y. (2013). Preservice teachers’ acceptance of learning management software: An application of the UTAUT2 model. International Education Studies, 6(7), 157–164.

Raman, A., Don, Y., Khalid, R., Hussin, F., Omar, M. S., & Ghani, M. (2014). Technology Acceptance on Smart Board among Teachers in Terengganu Using UTAUT Model. Asian Social Science, 10(11).

Ramayah, T., Ignatius, J., & Aafaqi, B. (2004). Pc Usage Among Students In A Private Institution Of Higher Learning: The Moderating Role Of Prior Experience. Malaysian Journal of Educators and Education, 20, 131–152.

Ramayah, T., & Lo, M.-C. (2007). Impact of shared beliefs on “perceived usefulness” and “ease of use” in the implementation of an enterprise resource planning system. Management Research News, 30(6), 420–431.

Singeh, F. W., Abrizah, A., & Karim, N. H. A. (2013). Malaysian authors’ acceptance to self-archive in institutional repositories: Towards a unified view. Electronic Library, 31(2), 188–207.

Statista. (2017). Active social network penetration.

Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25 (2), 173–180.

Sumak, B., Polancic, G., & Hericko, M. (2010). An Empirical Study of Virtual Learning Environment Adoption Using UTAUT. 2010 Second International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, 17–22.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics. PsycCRITIQUES, 28, 980.

Taiwo, A. A., Mahmood, A. K., & Downe, A. G. (2012). User acceptance of eGovernment: Integrating risk and trust dimensions with UTAUT model. 2012 International Conference on Computer and Information Science, ICCIS 2012 - A Conference of World Engineering, Science and Technology Congress, ESTCON 2012 - Conference Proceedings, 1, 109–113.

Tan, E., & Leby Lau, J. (2016). Behavioural intention to adopt mobile banking among the millennial generation Article information : Young Consumers, 17(1).

Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995). Understanding Information Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models. Information System Research, 6(2), 144–176.

Toh, C. H. (2013). Assessing adoption of wikis in a Singapore secondary school: Using the UTAUT model. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 63rd Annual Conference International Council for Education Media, ICEM 2013, 1–9.

Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 1–10.

Šumak, B., Polancic, G., & Hericko, M. (2010). An Empirical Study of Virtual Learning Environment Adoption Using UTAUT. 2010 Second International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, 17–22.

Urbach, N., & Ahlemann, F. (2010). Structural Equation Modelling in Information Systems Research Using Partial Least Squares. Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, 11(2), 5–40.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003a). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425–478.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003b). USER ACCEPTANCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: TOWARD A UNIFIED VIEW, 27(3), 425–478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., Chan, F. K. Y., Hu, P. J.-H., & Brown, S. a. (2011). Extending the two-stage information systems continuance model: incorporating UTAUT predictors and the role of context. Information Systems Journal, 21(6), 527–555.


Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., & Xu, X. (2016). Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology: A Synthesis and the Road Ahead. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(5), 328–376.

Wang, C. (2005). A Study of Taiwanese College Teachers’ Acceptance of Distance Learning. International Journal of Organizational Innovation, (2), 243–261.

Wang, J., & Hou, F. (2003). Research on the Relationship between the Internet Usages and the Organizational Performance in the Taiwanese E-commerce Business Organizations. Informing Science, 17–25.

Wang, Y., Hung, Y.-H., & Chou, S.-C. T. (2006). Acceptance of E-Government Service : A Validation of the UTAUT. In the 5Th WSEAS International Conference on E-ACTIVITIES (pp. 165–170). Venice.

Wu, Y. L., Tao, Y. H., & Yang, P. C. (2007). Using UTAUT to explore the behavior of 3G mobile communication users. IEEM 2007: 2007 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 199–203.

Yang, S. (2013). Understanding Undergraduate Students’ Adoption of Mobile Learning Model: A Perspective of the Extended UTAUT2. Journal of Convergence Information Technology, 8(10), 969–979.

Yueh, H. P., Huang, J. Y., & Chang, C. (2015). Exploring factors affecting students’ continued Wiki use for individual and collaborative learning: An extended UTAUT perspective. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(1), 16–31.

Zhou, T. (2008). Exploring Mobile User Acceptance Based on UTAUT and Contextual Offering. 2008 International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security, 241–245.

Zhou, T., Lu, Y., & Wang, B. (2010). Integrating TTF and UTAUT to explain mobile banking user adoption. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 760–767.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Int. J. Innov. e-ISSN: 2318-9975

Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 - Liberdade, São Paulo - SP (Brasil), Cep: 01504-000

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença 
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional