Towards a new paradigm of “coopetitiveness” in emerging countries: Case of the Algerian Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

Abdelkader Baaziz


The main aim of this paper is to propose thinking tracks of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems based on a “Quintuple Helix” approach that overcomes the competitive partitions by founding a paradigm of “coopetition” and “coopetitiveness” through the “intelligent specialization” with a strong societal and economic impact. Indeed, the dominant vision in most of emerging countries calls the relationship between Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and their actors, exclusively in terms of competitiveness aspects by reproducing identically the North-American models unlinked to the environmental dissimilarities, such as entrepreneurial culture. However, it is important to enquiring about the spatiotemporal adaptability of this model in the emerging countries contexts, particularly through its uninhibited relationship to the concepts of individual success and failure as well as the ecosystems running based mainly on private financing from business angels, crowdfunding and venture capital investors. While the creation of a startup is administratively facilitated, the uncertainties of the environment put its sustainability in a severe test.

The causes are numerous, we cite among others, the difficulty of these startups to fit into a multidisciplinary working mode, hence the necessity to integrate them in the value chain of an ecosystem where they answer efficiently to mutualized and specific R&D needs. That's why we propose to identify the main barriers to open innovation as well as the catalysts enabling the creation of the integrative entrepreneurial ecosystems. By borrowing the paradigm of the city, we highlight the “urbanized” ecosystem made up of “useful” and “specialized” blocks, integrated in the value chain of this ecosystem. We will show the viability of the proposed tracks through many cases of economic, societal and academic actions undertaken in Algeria in order to setting up a favorable environment of integrative entrepreneurial ecosystems.


Coopetitiveness; Coopetition; Quintuple Helix; Algerian entrepreneurial ecosystem; Ecosystem's Value Chain; Urbanized ecosystem; Useful blocks; Specialized blocks; Intelligent specialization; Mutualized R&D; Ambidextrous capabilities

Full Text:



Adler, P.; Goldoftas, B. & Levine, D. (1999). Flexibility versus efficiency? A case study of model changeovers in the Toyota production system. Organization Science, 10 (1), 43-68. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.10.1.43

AEO (2017). African Economic Outlook 2017: Entrepreneurship and Industrialization. AfDB, OECD and UNDP. DOI: 10.1787/aeo-2017-en

AF (2017). Micro-crédit/10 milliards de dollars de crédits Ansej depuis sa creation. In Algérie Focus News of 12/26/2017. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

Aliouat, B. (2013). L'entrepreneuriat algérien confronté à un manque de gouvernance inclusive : une approche conventionnaliste pour expliquer l'action de l'entrepreneur en milieu hostile. Maghreb – Machrek, 3 (217), p. 11-29. DOI: 10.3917/machr.217.0009

ARPT (2016). Rapport annuel 2016. Autorité de Régulation de la Poste et des Télécommunications. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

Baaziz, A. ; Leveillé, V. & Dou, H. (2017). Intelligence économique et Développement Durable des territoires : De la compétitivité à la coopétitivité. Revue Internationale d’Intelligence Economique, 9 (1). 55-76.

Baaziz, A. (2015). Synergie du triptyque : Knowledge Management, Intelligence Economique et Business Intelligence. Contribution à la réduction des riques liés aux décisions stratégiques dans les nouveaux environnements concurrentiels incertains : Cas des Entreprises Publiques Algériennes. PhD Thesis in Information Sciences. Université d’Aix-Marseille.

Baaziz, A. & Quoniam, L. (2014). Contribution to reduce risks related to strategic decisions in new uncertain competitive environments: The case of Algerian State‐Owned Firms. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 4 (1), 43‐57.

Bank of Algeria (2016). Rapports annuels de la Banque d'Algérie 2016. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

Benner, M.J. & Tushman, M.L. (2003). Exploitation, exploration, and process management: the productivity dilemma revisited. Academy of Management Review, 28 (2), 238-256. DOI: 10.2307/30040711

Blarr, W. Henning (2011). Organizational Ambidexterity – Implications for the Strategy-Performance Linkage. Dissertation HHL – Leipzig Graduate School of Management. Springer Gabler. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-8349-6859-3

Bouazza, Benzazoua. A.; Ardjouman. D. & Abada, O. (2015). Establishing the Factors Affecting the Growth of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Algeria. American International Journal of Social Science, 4 (2), 101-15.

Carayannis E.G. & Rakhmatullin R. (2014). The quadruple/quintuple innovation helixes and smart specialisation strategies for sustainable and inclusive growth in europe and beyond. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 5 (2), 212-239. DOI: 10.1007/s13132-014-0185-8

Carayannis, E. G.; Barth, T. D. & Cambell, D. F. J. (2012). The Quintuple Helix innovation model: global warming as a challenge and driver for innovation. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 1 (2), DOI: 10.1186/2192-5372-1-2

Carayannis, E. G. & Cambell, D. F. J. (2010). Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix and how do knowledge, innovation and the environment relate to each other? A proposed framework for a trans-disciplinary analysis of sustainable development and social ecology. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development, 1 (1). DOI: 10.4018/jsesd.2010010105

Carayannis, E. G. & Cambell, D. F. J. (2009). “Mode 3” and “Quadruple Helix”: toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. International Journal of Technology Management, 46 (3/4), DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2009.023374

Carayannis, E. G. (1999). Fostering synergies between information technology and managerial and organizational cognition: the role of knowledge management. Technovation, 19 (4), 219-231. DOI : 10.1016/S0166-4972(98)00101-1

CESER (2016). Avis sur l’Economie Circulaire. PACA - Conseil Economique Social et Environnemental. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

CORDIS (2017). Quintuple Helix Approach to Targeted Open Innovation in Energy, Water, Agriculture in the South Mediterranean Neighborhood. Community Research and Development Information Service. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

Davila, T. & Epstein, M. (2014). The Innovation Paradox: Why Good Businesses Kill Breakthroughs and How They Can Change. Berrett-Koehler Publishers: San Francisco, CA, USA. ISBN: 978-1609945534

Di Méo G. (2011). Les murs invisibles. Femmes, genre et géographie sociale. Armand Colin, coll. Recherches, 344 p. Paris, FR. ISBN: 978-2200271640

Etzkowitz, H. (2008). The triple helix: university-industry-government innovation in action. Taylor & Francis (Ed.): Londres, UK. ISBN: 978-0415964500

Etzkowitz, H. (2002). Networks of Innovation: Science, Technology and Development in the Triple Helix Era. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 1 (1). DOI: 10.1386/ijtm.1.1.7

Floyd, S. W. & Lane, P. J. (2000). Strategizing Throughout the Organization: Managing Role Conflict in Strategic Renewal. Academy of Management Review, 25 (1), 154-177. DOI: 10.2307/259268

Glavovic, B.C. (2013). Coastal innovation paradox. Sustainability, 5 (3), 912-933. DOI: 10.3390/su5030912

IFM (2018). Algeria: Selected Issues. IMF Country Report No. 18/169. International Monetary Fund. June 13, 2018. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

Jin, Z. (2005). Global Technological Change: From Hard Technology to Soft Technology. Intellect, UK. ISBN: 978-1841501246

Levinthal, D. A. & March, J. G. (1993). The Myopia of Learning. Strategic Management Journal, 14 95-112. DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250141009

Manceau, D. ; Fabri, J. ; Moatti, V. ; Kaltenbach, P. F. & Bagger-Hansen, L. (2012). L’open innovation ouvre à de nouvelles pratiques. Expansion Management Review, 1 (144), 115-122. DOI: 10.3917/emr.144.0115

March, J.G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2 (1), 71-87.

MIM (2018). Various Bulletins of SMEs. Ministry of Industry and Mines. No. 4/2003 to 31/2017. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

Moing (Le) J., (2015). L’économie circulaire : pour un développement durable des territoires. Environnement et Société. Master thesis. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

OBG (2017). THE REPORT – Algeria 2017. Bloomberg Terminal Research Homepage: OBGR‹GO›. Oxford Business Group. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

O’Reilly III, C. A. & Tushman, M. (2008). Ambidexterity as a Dynamic Capability: Resolving the Innovator's Dilemma. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 185-206 DOI: 10.1016/j.riob.2008.06.002

Oxley, J. E. & Sampson, R. (2004). The Scope and Governance of International R&D alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 25 (8/9), 723-749. DOI : 10.1002/smj.391

Raibaud, Y. (2015). Durable mais inégalitaire : la ville. Travail, Genre et Sociétés, 1 (33), 29-47. DOI : 10.3917/tgs.033.0029

Salvetat, D. & Le Roy, F. (2007). Coopétition et intelligence économique. Revue Française de Gestion, 7 (176), 147-161. DOI : 10.3166/rfg.176.147-162

Statista (2018). Venture Capital Funding Climbs to Decade High in 2017. The Statistics Portal. Posted by Felix Richter, Jan 10, 2018. Retrieved from, , Access Date 06/26/2018.

Theys, J. (2002). L’approche territoriale du développement durable, condition d’une prise en compte de sa dimension sociale. Développement Durable et Territoires, Dossier 1/2002. DOI: 10.4000/developpementdurable.1475

Tushman, M. L. (2004). From engineering management/R&D management, to the management of innovation, to exploiting and exploring over value nets: 50 years of research initiated by the IEEE-TEM. IEEE Transactions on engineering management, 51 (4), 409-411. DOI: 10.1109/TEM.2004.836365

Tushman, M. L. & O’Reilly III, C. A. (1996). Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change. California Management Review, 38 (4), 8-30.

UNCTAD (2004). Examen de la Politique de l'Investissement de l’Algérie. Conférence des Nations Unies sur le Commerce et le Développement. Report: UNCTAD/ITE/IPC/2003/9. United Nations. ISBN 92-1-212308-2. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

World Bank (2003). Algeria - Investment climate assessment (English). Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

World Bank (2018). Doing Business 2018: Reforming to create Jobs, Economy Pro le of Algeria. World Bank Group. Retrieved from, Access Date 06/26/2018.

Zeng, D.; Hu, J. & Ouyang, T. (2017). Managing Innovation Paradox in the Sustainable Innovation Ecosystem: A Case Study of Ambidextrous Capability in a Focal Firm. Sustainability, 9 (11), 2091. DOI: 10.3390/su9112091


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Int. J. Innov. e-ISSN: 2318-9975

Rua Vergueiro, 235/249 - Liberdade, São Paulo - SP (Brasil), Cep: 01504-000

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença 
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional